Was Jane Austen a Feminist?

Was Jane Austen a feminist?

In order to answer that question, we first need a definition of feminism. Here is how Merriam-Webster defines it: “the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities.” By this definition, most modern women (and men) are feminists.

Of course, “feminist” is a moving target. In the 1900s, feminist meant someone with the radical idea that women should vote. In the 60s and 70s, it meant someone who believed women could work outside the home. But back in Jane Austen’s time there would have been many men (and women) who disputed the basic premise: that men and women could or should be equal in rights and opportunities. Austen’s world did not provide equality. Unmarried women of Austen’s class could not easily support themselves and lived lives that were circumscribed in many ways. Married women had it even worse: once they married, all of their property became their husband’s.

While the word feminist was not in use during Austen’s era, there is plenty of evidence that she was aware of and unhappy about disparities in rights and opportunities between men and women.

Austen’s life itself may be the best argument for Austen as a feminist. Women weren’t supposed to write novels, which many considered to be lurid and in bad taste. They especially weren’t supposed to publish them. Women were supposed to confine their lives to the private sphere of family and the home. (In Persuasion, Austen writes: “We live at home, quiet, confined…”) The “public” aspect of publication should have disqualified Austen as an author—according to the customs of the time. But Austen did publish, and she published as “a lady,” rather than using a male pseudonym, as the Bronte sisters did later. It was obviously important to her that readers knew her books were written from a female perspective.
In Austen’s works you can also find many demonstrations of feminist beliefs. While none of her characters agitate overtly for changes in gender norms, they also do not blindly follow the dictates of convention. Elizabeth Bennet is too outspoken for a woman and refuses to bow to societal pressure to marry for the sake of money. Fanny Price sticks to her internal sense of right and wrong no matter what her “betters” say. Sense and Sensibility is a very eloquent examination of how women wrestle with questions of being ruled by head or heart. In all of her books, the heroines are struggling to find a place in the world where they can be true to themselves—without compromising their values and needs.

However, I believe there is no better way to represent Austen’s feminist beliefs than a quote from Persuasion. Hargrave says, “I do not think I ever opened a book in my life which had not something to say upon woman’s inconstancy. Songs and proverbs, all talk of woman’s fickleness. But perhaps you will say, these were all written by men.” Anne replies, “Perhaps I shall. Yes, yes, if you please, no reference to examples in books. Men have had every advantage of us in telling their own story. Education has been theirs in so much higher a degree; the pen has been in their hands. I will not allow books to prove anything.” When I saw this scene in the movie version of Persuasion, I wanted to stand up and cheer.

I don’t think it was until I was in college that I realized how thoroughly disenfranchised women are in the history of literature. With rare exceptions, women’s voices were not heard and women’s experiences were not represented until the 1800s and the popularization of the novel as a form of literature. Yes, men have written—sometimes wonderful—female characters. But we have no way of knowing what women themselves would have written if they’d had the opportunity through the centuries. All we do know is that it would be different from what men wrote.

Austen herself demonstrates this truth. A man could not have written her novels. They are about a female world and a female experience. Readers may swoon over Mr. Darcy, but it is Austen’s exploration of the feminine that makes her books unique. Thank goodness Austen had the courage to “go public” with her stories, otherwise we wouldn’t have them. We can all be thankful that Austen was a feminist.

14 Responses to Was Jane Austen a Feminist?

  1. (Here I am just now reading some blogs sent nearly a year ago. Sorry but at least I didn’t delete them. I just get too many and don’t get to them if I am deep into the book I am reading that day.) Very interesting. I have to believe that JA was a feminist if only for some of her traits and behaviors. I believe if she lived today she would have been very vocal in supporting women’s rights. Considering her success even with how limited were her choices, imagine if she had more choices…a lecture tour, a professor position, educating a generation of ladies who could express themselves through writing. Thanks for sharing.

  2. The novels of Jane Austen were actually written by her cousin Eliza de Feuillide as I show in my book “Jane Austen- a New Revelation”. She could not publish under her own name because she was the illegitimate daughter of Warren Hastings, the Governor General of India. She was a feminist in the sense that she believed women should have the same classical education as men. She herself received such an education which was paid for by her father.

    • Yeah, right. Considering that the novels were published anonymously and Jane Austen’s name did not appear until after her death, 4 years after Eliza’s, there is a fundamental flaw in this argument. You might as well say (and I believe some have) that Fanny Burney wrote the books attributed to Jane. Or maybe Eliza also wrote Evelina? You could indeed argue that Eliza was a proto-feminist – certainly she took some persuading to relinquish widowed independence and remarry.

  3. Hi,

    It could be argued that Jane Austen was a proto-feminist writer instead of a feminist writer. An example of a feminist writers would be the likes of Mary Wollstonecraft who was around the similar time as Austen. All of Austen’s novels end with marriage.

  4. I’ve pondered this question quite a bit. Austen wouldn’t recognize her 21st century 3rd-wave activist sisters as having a shared viewpoint with her own, but in her own time and way, she was a progressive thinker, and certainly made a point in her writing of illuminating the unfairness of the law with regards to women’s rights of inheritance, marriage, and employment – specifically among the higher classes where there was property to be inherited, marriage was often a business transaction, and a gentle-born woman had few options if she was forced to support herself. So I would characterize her as a proto-feminist – laying the groundwork for future generations by framing the consequences of inequality of the sexes for sympathetic characters who deserved better.

    • Hi Diana, Yes, I wouldn’t say she was a feminist by today’s conventional expectations of feminism. But she was pretty progressive for her time in her thinking about what women could do.

  5. Thank you, Victoria, for this thoughtful and well-written post. I have always considered Jane Austen a feminist within the context of her own life and times. As a matter of fact, I recently wrote a literary analysis as part of my admissions application for a master’s program, wherein I examined the feminist characters in the works of Isabel Allende, and I mentioned Jane Austen as an example of female writers who write feminist characters. I was really thrilled to read your thoughts on this as they very much mirror my own. Thank you again!

  6. Hi Victoria,
    I don’t know if I would call Austen a feminist even by the standards of her time. As far as I know, she was not part of any of the movements which advocated advancing women’s rights. Yet, as you pointed out so well, she was no traditionalist either. I like to think that she was the kind of woman who just did what she wanted to do (write, support herself and her family, stay single) because it was what she wanted to do, She knew her own mind and acted on it in the most sensible and logical ways possible, and found her own path to happiness without reference to what society expected of her.
    I absolutely agree with you about standing up and cheering at that quote from Persuasion! It’s marvelous every time I read it!

    • Hi Elaine, There were no “women’s movements” at the time, so I don’t think that’s a good standard to use to judge. The reason I think Austen was a feminist is because she didn’t just meekly accept the expected gender norms.

  7. Hi Victoria 🙂 I’ve heard it argued both ways, that Jane Austen was a feminist and wasn’t. I like to think she was. As you said, just publishing her books was an act of feminism in that time. I love your long quote, and my favorite bit of it is: ‘Men have had every advantage of us in telling their own story.’ How true! Furthermore, as the quote points out, men had every advantage in telling women’s stories.

    I never thought about it fully before, your point that before 1800, women were rarely able to write much that was read by many people. I mean, we must have letters and other documents, but it was a man’s world, wasn’t it? I’m sure there are examples of cultures, times and individuals showing instances of women having more say and more impact, but by and large the world was a place where ‘might means right.’ Most of the time, through most of history, I imagine that referred to physical might.

    • Hi Summer, Thanks for weighing in. Yes, I get sad when I think about all those women who might have written (or painted or composed) through the centuries but didn’t because it wasn’t acceptable. There are exceptions, but they’re exceptions, not the rule. Virginia Woolf said “throughout most of history, anonymous was a woman.” So there are probably women who were published anonymously, but we’ll never know about most of them.

      • I don’t remember the specific book, but author Lois McMasters Bujold has a character say something about how bad it is for a civilization to ignore the potential contributions of half of its citizens. What I find a little frightening is that some cultures today are doing just that.

        Bu the way, Rex Stout had his detective, Nero Wolfe, be angry with Jane Austen. Why? Because he didn’t believe women could write good novels and she proved him wrong. (I wish I remember which book that was in.)

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