Continuing my series on servants during the Regency/Georgian eras, here is essay #2. On November 2 I began with a general introduction on estate staff, both inside and outside, and covered the Estate or Land Steward. That post can be read here: Regency Servants: Introduction & Steward I would suggest reading (or re-reading) that post for the broad overview helpful to fully comprehend the individual servants.
Today I will continue with the household — also referred to as the “domestic” or inside staff. Once I’ve discussed the numerous positions necessary to keep a grand estate like Pemberley operating (which will take several blog posts) I will move outside to the stables and gardens. Much to learn! Are you ready? Okay then!
Let me begin by sharing the link to Mrs. Beeton’s Book of Household Management, one of the best online resources. Mrs. Beeton is my immediate go-to gal for information on this topic. However, I also cross-reference with Georgian/Regency databases and books, which I will share links to as the series continues. Mrs. Beeton wrote her books in the Victorian Era so logically some things may have changed in the 40 years since the Regency. Nevertheless, her book is a wonderful, enjoyable and easy to read resource. Also filled with a ton of recipes!
Following on the heels of the steward, today I’ll cover the only two domestic servants who held positions relatively independent from the household staff hierarchy. Unlike the steward who was not considered a servant, the valet (or manservant) and the lady’s maid were servants. As such they “technically” fell under the butler and housekeeper in rank (a little sketchy to pinpoint precisely) but answered directly and solely to the gentleman and lady they served. Thus they were independent servants, and due to the extreme skills they possessed — and vital importance to the public persona of their master and mistress — rose above all other servants. Yet despite their critical importance, neither had authority over those servants. They performed their duties alone and if assistance was requested the housekeeper or butler had the authority to provide (or not provide). In other words, a valet could not order a footman to do something, even if that “something” was a command by the master.
Valet, or Manservant
Valet (noun) – “personal man-servant,” mid-14c. (late 12c. as a surname), from Old French valet, variant of vaslet “man’s servant, workman’s assistant,” originally “squire, young man, youth of noble birth” (12c.), from Gallo-Roman vassellittus “young nobleman, squire, page,” diminutive of Medieval Latin vassallus, from vassus “servant” (vassal). Since the 16th century, the word has traditionally been pronounced as rhyming with pallet, though an alternative pronunciation, rhyming with chalet, as in French, is now common. The Oxford English Dictionary lists both pronunciations as valid.
For a well-bred gentleman of the upper class, acquiring an excellent valet was essential. The simple act of getting dressed in proper Regency attire was practically impossible without assistance. That said, do not make the mistake of assuming a valet’s only job was to pick out clothing or help don a jacket! Indeed, his primary duty was the maintenance of his master’s wardrobe, yet this was merely the beginning. Before I cover specific valet tasks, let me talk about generalities.
Typically a gentleman employed one valet (his “man” or “gentleman’s gentleman”) who stayed within his employ for years. Upon occasion, the valet might serve other gentlemen in a household or assist male guests without their own personal servant, and in a pinch might double as a footman, but always his primary duty was to his master. Typically at least one or two footmen would be trained in basic valet duties as substitutes in emergency situations.
A valet had a room separate but attached to the gentleman’s dressing room where he tended to his chores. Oftentimes this room doubled as his private sleeping quarters, but if not, his bedchamber would be located as close as possible to the master’s suite with a direct bell system. Essentially a valet was on call 24/7! A valet was aware of his master’s schedule down to the precise minute, but he never assumed his time was free. He was always on the alert, ready and waiting for his gentleman’s return. Unless given designated “time off” or away from the house for a task related to his job, the valet remained available.
On a personal level, a valet was rarely considered a friend and never an equal to his master. Nevertheless, he was expected to be intimately familiar with the gentleman he served beyond most wives or male companions. They were often confidants and privy to information no one else would know, trust therefore imperative. The valet witnessed their employer’s unguarded moments, beheld all their secrets, bore the brunt of their moods, served as agents to all demands no matter how capricious, ran personal errands of delicate natures, and so on. A valet would never gossip to other staff or reveal the minutest detail of his master’s private affairs. Remember, he answered to no one but his employer, and upon his authority as spokesperson for the master of the house, he was not questioned when requesting something. Hence the fine balance of power and respect with the upper-level servants, specifically the butler and housekeeper, as noted above.
A valet was expected to foresee any possible need of his master before asked. Everything from choosing the appropriate attire or grooming product to having the fire lit or bath drawn or curtains opened should be anticipated and prepared for in advance. His work was ongoing all day and night. A valet was always a learned man although not typically possessing a higher education. His skills included secretarial duties such as writing letters for his master, keeping private accounts, and making travel arrangements, among other similar tasks. Additionally, a trusted valet might offer advice or handle business affairs for his master. It was expected for him to pack a traveling bag swiftly and include exactly what was needed down to the tiniest detail. Furthermore, as an essential servant, the valet was almost always a traveling companion. While largely unseen in public, the valet was a reflection of his master and presented himself as a gentleman, i.e. well-groomed and dressed, proper and polite, etc.
A short list of a valet’s duties–
- He maintained the wardrobe. This included washing and removing stains, steaming and pressing, polishing boots and buttons, brushing the dust from jackets and coats, and caring for hats and all the other accoutrements (of which there were many). He mended, cleaned, and stocked literally every article of clothing, item, lotion, perfume, etc. that touched his master. Nothing, absolutely nothing, passed his inspection or was touched by any other servant unless overseen or specifically requested.
- Assistance with dressing and undressing, several times in a day. Depending on the gentleman’s fashion sense, the valet chose the appropriate garments and accessories for the planned event.
- Aware of latest fashion styles, fabrics, colors, etc. Master of the plethora of possible cravat ties! This was critical during the Regency. The valet worked closely with the gentleman’s chosen tailor as well as merchants selling men’s essentials (perfumer, draper, cobbler, etc.)
- Shaving his master, or assisting with the process since most men preferred to shave themselves.
- Cutting and styling his hair, beard, and mustache. Basically attended to all grooming chores imaginable. Cutting toenails too? Probably!
- Purchasing and preparing various personal concoctions: preferred eau de cologne, tooth powder, and blacking for the boots.
- Purchasing and caring for all personal merchandise: razors, brushes, soap, towels and linens, candles, etc.
- Cleaning of the dressing room and master’s bedchamber, personally and in overseeing the maids. He ensured that the private sanctuaries were prepared precisely as the master required.
- Preparing the room: fireplace lit or ready to light, candles/lamps in proper order, bed warmed, windows and drapes opened/shut depending on the master’s preferences, etc.
- Serving breakfast, coffee, stocking the liquor cabinet, etc.
Sometimes called an abigail based on a character from the 1616 play The Scornful Lady, and perhaps associated with King David’s wife Abigail who called herself a handmaid.
As the female counterpart to the valet, the lady’s maid had similar duties and characteristics. In essence, everything noted above for the valet was true for her. Re-read inserting her title instead and you’ll get the full picture!
However, in many respects her job was far more complicated. For instance, a woman’s wardrobe, cosmetic needs, and personal hygiene requirements were substantially greater than a man’s. A gentleman’s daily garments were largely the same in fabric and style, but a woman’s dress varied greatly. Fabrics alone were multiplied enormously compared to those worn by men. Then add on furs, laces, ribbons, feathers, flowers, and on and on it goes. Next imagine the array of jewelry, hats, gloves, shoes, fans, reticules… You get the idea! All of these a personal maid (never anyone else) would proficiently clean, iron, mend, store, and pack.
A lady wore special outfits for the opera, a dinner party, Royal event, a ball, walking at specific hours or places, riding, and so on. It was normal for a woman of Society to change clothing up to five times in a single day, this job alone easily consuming a maid’s whole day. Her knowledge of the latest fashions, diverse hair styles, proper garments and adornments for every conceivable engagement, and rules of dress etiquette must be current and vast. She worked closely with merchants and modistes, fully aware of her mistress’s preferences. It was essential for her to possess excellent skills as a seamstress, and if also a quality modiste, her worth increased.
Her understanding of which cleaning solutions removed stains from particular cloths was a daunting skill requiring constant education in chemistry. Add to that the wealth of cosmetics and toiletries and perfumes she would not only need to know how to acquire and/or concoct but also how to apply. Next, consider the numerous jewels, hair adornments, and fashion accessories she had to polish, protect, and repair. There were dozens of hairstyles she must know how to create along with the various brushes, combs, and curling devices to clean and repair. Whew! One can readily imagine how challenging it was to keep her lady well dressed.
“It will be her business to dress, re-dress, and undress her lady; and in this, she should learn to be particularly au fait and expeditious, ever studying, so far as it depends upon herself, to manifest good taste by suiting the ornaments of and decoration of her dress to the complexion habits age and general appearance of her person. Thus she will evince her own good sense, best serve her lady and gratify all those who are most interested in her welfare and happiness. She should alway be punctual in her attendance and assiduous in her attention.” ~ The Complete Servant by Samuel and Sarah Adams (1825)
Remember that like the valet, her duties began with the clothing but certainly did not end there. The lady’s maid also maintained the mistress’s private chambers: sweeping the carpets, changing bed linens, fresh daily flowers, dusting and polishing, emptying the water closet pot, providing fresh water, tending to and laying the fire, trimming candles and lamps, etc. She might enlist the assistance of a chambermaid or footman (for heavy tasks) but always bearing in mind that the lady’s private chambers were restricted.
She personally communicated with shop owners and tradesman in purchasing supplies, performed secretarial tasks, and was in charge of packing for trips. Through it all she would be polite, impeccably groomed, and gracious, remembering that she represented her mistress and must please her at all times.
The Complete Servant: Being A Practical Guide To The Peculiar Duties And Business Of All Descriptions Of Servants, by Samuel and Sarah Adams was published in 1825 is a 500+ page book covering everything. Awesome book! It can be purchased in hardback or paperback on Amazon at this link: Amazon Buy OR read it on Google Books or download as an eBook: Google Books Link
The Duties of a Lady’s Maid with Directions for Conduct and Numerous Receipts for the Toilette is a specific book written and published in 1825 also, and can be read on Google Books HERE.
That’s enough for this installment. Come back in four weeks for the third essay on Regency Servants!